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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2779\margr3618\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2779\margrsxn3618\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li54\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\sub\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 5\nosupersub o\sub 4\nosupersub         FEATURES : CRIMINAL ADMINISTRATION}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li61\fi0\ri0\sb245\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 administration.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li508\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Yuan   Chwang  was favourably impressed by  the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li259\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-234\slmult0\tx2120 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ,-,       , \sub c{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw6 government, which was founded on}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li238\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx3128 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex72\expndtw23\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 General reatures         P{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw9\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0      \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0    \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 <       \expndtw60 ,-,.,.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li32\fi2084\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 benign principles. Jbammes were not-\expndtw8 registered and individuals were not subject to forced \expndtw6 labour contributions. The people were thus left free to \expndtw14 grow in their own surroundings unfettered by the \expndtw16 shackles of overgovern.rn.ent. Taxation was light; \expndtw8 the main sources of revenue were the traditional one-\expndtw4 sixth of the produce and "duties at ferries and barrier \expndtw8 stations",\super 1\nosupersub  paid by tradesmen, who went to and fro \expndtw13 bartering their merchandise. The enlightened nature \expndtw6 of Harsa's administration is also evident from the liber\-\expndtw4 al provision he made for charity to various religious \expndtw7 communities and for rewarding men of intellectual \expndtw-5 eminence.\super 2}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri83\sb0\sa0\sl-259\slmult0\tx1732 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Owing to the   well-organised   character  of   the\line \i\expndtw8\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'84\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  .  .   \i0 ,      .  . .      government the   people generally\line \expndtw22 tradT{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\super\expndtw7 S\nosupersub "   \super lived\nosupersub  together on good terms, and}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi2099\ri119\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 there were few instances of violent \expndtw12 crime.\super 3\nosupersub  But the roads and river-routes were by no \expndtw21 means immune from bands of brigands, Yuan \expndtw9 Chwang himself having been stripped by them more \expndtw13 than once. Indeed, on one occasion he was even on \expndtw2 the point of being offered up as sacrifice by desperate \expndtw7 characters. The law against crime was exceptionally \expndtw0 severe. Imprisonment for life was the ordinary penalty for \expndtw3 transgressions of the statute law and conspiracy against \expndtw5 the sovereign, and we are informed that, though the \expndtw3 offenders did not suffer any corporal punishment, they \expndtw4 were not at all treated as members of the community.\super 4 \nosupersub\expndtw8 The \i Plarsatarita, \i0 however, refers to the custom of \expndtw10 releasing prisoners on joyous and festive occasions.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li356\fi0\ri0\sb220\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx475\tqr\tx2113 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw8 Waiters, I, p.{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-13 176.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li356\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx475\tqr\tx2113 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw8 Watters, I, p.{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-12 176.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li356\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx475\tqr\tx2113 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw8 Watters, I, p.{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-12 171.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li356\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx475 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 4{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw6 Ibid., p. 172.}\par }